Carbon dating cost

Common alloying elements include: manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, boron, titanium, vanadium, tungsten, cobalt, and niobium.

Additional elements are also important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, and traces of oxygen, nitrogen, and copper, that are most frequently considered undesirable.

With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire.

Unlike copper and tin, liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily.

The carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight.Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon that is then lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C (482 °F), and copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C (2,010 °F), and the combination, bronze, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C (1,981 °F).In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction.Too little carbon content leaves (pure) iron quite soft, ductile, and weak.

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